Accessibility

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The official documentation is at: http://docs.alfresco.com



Usability


Table of Contents


Web Content Accessibility Requirement


A requirement of the product is accessibility by people with disabilities. We must ensure the product conforms to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 (WCAG 1.0) published by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) as part of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) to at least Priority Level One and the product must also conform to Section 508 - 1194.22 Web-based intranet and internet information and applications, which is published in the Federal Register.

The section 508 site states:

'Section 508 requires that Federal agencies' electronic and information technology is accessible to people with disabilities. The Center for Information Technology Accommodation (CITA), in the U.S. General Services Administration's Office of Government wide Policy, has been charged with the task of educating Federal employees and building the infrastructure necessary to support Section 508 implementation. Using this web site, Federal employees and the public can access resources for understanding and implementing the requirements of Section 508'


List of standards and checkpoints


Section 508 (36 CFR Part 1194) - ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS


http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12

Subpart B 1194.22 Technical Standards - Web-based intranet and internet information and applications. 16 rules :

http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12


  • 1194.22 (a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via 'alt', 'longdesc', or in element content).

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 1.1:
1.1 Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element (e.g., via 'alt', 'longdesc', or in element content). This includes: images,  graphical representations of text (including symbols), image map regions, animations (e.g., animated GIFs), applets and programmatic  objects, ascii art, frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (played with or without user  interaction), stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video, and video. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 1.4:
1.4 For any time-based multimedia presentation (e.g., a movie or animation), synchronize equivalent alternatives (e.g., captions or  auditory descriptions of the visual track) with the presentation. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from  context or markup.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 2.1:
2.1 Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 6.1:
6.1 Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets. For example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated  style sheets, it must still be possible to read the document. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 1.2:
1.2 Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with  an available geometric shape.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 9.1:
9.1 Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available  geometric shape. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 5.1:
5.1 For data tables, identify row and column headers. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row  or column headers.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 5.2:
5.2 For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.  (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 12.1:
12.1 Title each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 7.1:
7.1 Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the  provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated  whenever the primary page changes.

This is equivalent to WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 11.4:
11.4 If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is  accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page. (Priority 1)


  • 1194.22 (l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the  script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.

  • 1194.22 (m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page  content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with §1194.21(a) through (l).

  • 1194.22 (n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to  access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions  and cues.

  • 1194.22 (o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.

  • 1194.22 (p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.




WCAG 1.0 Checkpoints (Priority One)


W3C's WAI 'Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0', level A checkpoints (priority one checkpoints)


In General

  • 1.1 Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element (e.g., via 'alt', 'longdesc', or in element content). This includes:

images, graphical representations of text (including symbols), image map regions, animations (e.g., animated GIFs), applets and programmatic objects, ascii art, frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (played with or without user interaction), stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video, and video.


  • 2.1 Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.

  • 4.1 Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document's text and any text equivalents (e.g., captions).

  • 6.1 Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets. For example, when an HTML document is rendered without associated style sheets, it must still be possible to read the document.

  • 6.2 Ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes.

  • 7.1 Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker.

  • 14.1 Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content.

And if you use images and image maps (Priority 1)

  • 1.2 Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map.

  • 9.1 Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

And if you use tables (Priority 1)

  • 5.1 For data tables, identify row and column headers.

  • 5.2 For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.

And if you use frames (Priority 1)

  • 12.1 Title each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation.

And if you use applets and scripts (Priority 1)

  • 6.3 Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not supported. If this is not possible, provide equivalent information on an alternative accessible page.

And if you use multimedia (Priority 1)

  • 1.3 Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation.

  • 1.4 For any time-based multimedia presentation (e.g., a movie or animation), synchronize equivalent alternatives (e.g., captions or auditory descriptions of the visual track) with the presentation.

And if all else fails (Priority 1)

  • 11.4 If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page.




Overlap between WCAG 1.0 checkpoints and 508 (1194.22) standards


There is an  overlap in the mapping between section 508 subpart B and the WCAG 1.0 which is shown in the following table:



























Section 1194.22 Paragraph WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint
(a) 1.1
(b) 1.4
(c) 2.1
(d) 6.1
(e) 1.2
(f) 9.1
(g) 5.1
(h) 5.2
(i) 12.1
(j) 7.1
(k) 11.4

508 (1194.22) standards that do not overalp WCAG 1.0

Paragraphs (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of the 508 standards are different from WCAG 1.0.  Web  pages that conform to WCAG 1.0, level A (i.e., all priority 1 checkpoints) must also meet paragraphs  (l), (m), (n), (o), and (p) of this section to comply with this section.


WCAG checkpoints that do not overlap 508 (1194.22)

WCAG 1.0 level A is the same as the 508 standards § 1194.22 (a) to (k) plus the following:


  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 1.3 Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory  description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation. (Priority 1)

  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 4.1 Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document's text and any text equivalents (e.g.,  captions). (Priority 1)

  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 6.2 Ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes. (Priority 1)

  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 6.3 Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not  supported. If this is not possible, provide equivalent information on an alternative accessible page. (Priority 1)

  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 8.1 Make programmatic elements such as scripts and applets directly accessible or compatible with assistive  technologies [Priority 1 if functionality is important and not presented elsewhere, otherwise Priority 2.]

  • WCAG 1.0 Checkpoint 14.1 Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content. (Priority 1)

Other 508 Technical Standards in subpart B for consideration


1194.21 Software applications and operating systems.

http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12#Software


Other 508 Standards for consideration


Subpart C

1194.31 Functional performance criteria.

http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12#Functional

Subpart D

1194.31 Information, Documentation, and Support

http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm?FuseAction=Content&ID=12


Implementing accessible web-based applications


A good place to start can be found at:

http://www.w3.org/WAI/gettingstarted/

W3c guidelines can be found at:

http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/

HTML techniques can be found at:

http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/WD-WAI-PAGEAUTH-0203

WAI Resources can be found at:

http://www.w3.org/WAI/Resources/


Testing and Evaluation


W3C's Evaluation suite:

http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/existingtools.html

A popular choice for web accessibility testing is bobby:

http://www.watchfire.com/products/desktop/bobby/default.aspx

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